I am sometimes asked to explain why I am skeptical about the possibility of AI (artificial intelligence). In this post, I shall discuss where I see the problems. I sometimes express my skepticism by way of expressing doubt about computationalism, the view of mind that is summed up with the slogan “cognition is computation.”
I’ll start by clarifying what I mean by AI.
Suppose that we could give a complete map or specification of a person, listing all of the atoms in that person’s body, and listing their exact arrangement. Then, armed with that map, we set about creating an exact replica. Would the result of that be a living, thinking person? My personal opinion is that it would, indeed, be a living thinking person, a created twin or clone of the original person that was mapped.
Let’s use the term “synthetic person” for an entity constructed in that way. It is synthetic because we have put it together (synthesized it) from parts. You could summarize my view as saying that a synthetic person is possible in principle, though it would be extremely difficult in practice.
To build a synthetic person, we would not need to know how it functions. Simply copying a real biological person would do the trick. However, if we wanted to create some sort of “person” with perhaps different materials and without it being an exact copy, then we would need to understand the principles on which it operates. We can use the term “artificial person” for an entity so constructed.
My own opinion is that an artificial person is possible in principle, but would be very difficult to produce in practice. And to be clear, I am saying that even if we have full knowledge of all of the principles, we would still find it very difficult to construct such an artificial person.
As I shall use the term in this post, an artificial intelligence, or an AI, is an artificial person built primarily using computation. In the usual version, there are peripheral sensors (input devices) and effectors (output devices), but most of the work is done by a central computer so can be said to be computation.
read more »